Sample Essay On Positive Organizational Management: Modern Theory Of Organizational Behavior
In the modern workplace, the increasing competition necessitates the performance above average. Stiff competition and unconstrained access to information due to the emergence and advancement of technology have created a business environment that is not easy to survive. Therefore, difference managerial approaches are required to challenge the traditional assumptions of fixing the weaknesses to improve performance within the organization. One of the effective and efficient approaches to improving performance in the workplace is the positive approach to the organizational behavior. Several researchers have indicated that the positive behavior approach to the organization results in positive affect and positive reinforcement, humor, and positively oriented employee attitudes. As a result, such positive organizational behaviors has resulted in improved performance within the organization. However, some studies have indicated that there is organizational management have provided relatively more support to employee and managerial problems and dysfunctions in the workplace. The hypothesis of this study elucidates on the evidence that the modern organizational system is biased to manage the groups and personal under negative pressure. At the same time, people judge the negative phenomena more accurately than the negative phenomena. In this case, managers tend to rate the competencies and proficiency of employees more accurately when they perform collect than when they perform incorrectly.
In the real-life business environment, managers are achieving success and competitive advantage by utilizing the positive managerial behaviors. The positive behavior is based on the hope, resilience, and optimism that contributes to job performance, work happiness, organization commitment, and job satisfaction. One of the global business that has embraced positive organizational behavior is Starbuck. The Starbuck CEO has provided an insight into the significance of changing the way they used to do business by empowering and encouraging their employees. The managers in the organization are utilizing the management system based on team building, collaboration, reinforcement, and positive encouragement to employees. According to the company’s CEO, Mr. Schultz, the company gives the employees reasons to believe in their tasks, and they will consequently improve the experience of the customers (Cuccureddu, 2012). Therefore, the company makes their employees true ambassadors of their brand through positive managerial behavior. ‘
Youssef and Luthans (2007) conducted a correlational and stepwise regression to find the relationship between positive organizational behavior and the employee performance. The analysis indicated that all the first-order correlations among optimism, hope, and resilience were below or equals to 0.6, which offered support for the discriminant validity of work-related results. In study 1 and study 2 the kurtosis or skewness statistics did not exceed +2 indicating that all variables in the study were normally distributed. The study indicated that there is a correlation between the three psychology capacity and job satisfaction and work happiness. According to Luthans (2002), the previous analysis have shown a significant correlation of 0.38 between the work-related performance and self-efficacy. The study indicated that the self-efficacy contributes to an average of 28 percent increase in performance. Comparing to other interventions in the organization behavior, this result were relatively higher. For example, Luthans indicates that interventions such as goal-setting, organizational behavior modification, and feedback scored 10.39%, 17%, and 13.36% respectively. Therefore, these studies have supported the hypothesis that the positive organizational behavior such as self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience have a positive correlation with the employee performance.
As long as I can remember, the positive behavior approach has materialized in a highly visible method applied in the management of an organization. There are claims that positive behavior approach has been considerably impacted by applied behavior analysis amongst other factors. According to Carr and Sidener (2002), there is growing proof that indicates the positive behavior approach is transforming into a distinct discipline. These researchers established that, “now is the time to consider the ramifications of separating Positive behavior approach from applied behavior analysis” (p. 251). When positive behavior is adopted, the implications result to positive effects towards an organization. There is an undeniable success of positive behavior approach towards organizations since its strategic adoption leads organizations to effective performance. The positive behavior approach is used by organizations as a strategy that helps the workforce cope with the challenging behavior in the workplace. For instance, most organizations develop a training program to induce new skills to the workforce so that they can meet the demands of the changing dynamics in the competitive market. The training helps workers to adapt comfortably to the environment and perform in an incredible manner. The effectiveness of positive behavior approaches ensures that organizations implement interventions that lead to personal success and personal satisfaction at the workplace.
Youssef (2007) highlights two studies conducted to measure the outcomes of Hope, Optimism and Resilience in the workplace. The first study asked the participants to rank their performance comparative to the personnel they knew working in same positions on a 10-point scale. In addition, the second study required the managers to highlight the most recent performance review of their employees. The formal performance appraisal system was very important in the study. In the first study, the survey was administered to 1032 employees from 135 Midwestern organizations. The sample in the second study comprised of 232 employees that consisted of 42 managers, from 32 Midwestern organizations. The outcomes in the two studies indicated high levels of job satisfactions, organizational commitment and work happiness. The findings of the studies illustrated that employees’ positive psychological capacities determined the level of outcomes from the participants of the survey. Each variable result to a unique feature imposed on the personnel who adopt it. The studies evaluated the work-related outcomes by measuring the performance, work happiness, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Evidence indicates that training interventions are very important to improve the performance in organizations (Youssef, 2007). Therefore, positive behavior change is very important to any organization if the implementation is effective.
According to the analysis above, it is clear that organization in the competitive business environment heavily relies on the positive organization. The case study indicates that the companies such as Starbuck have identified employee empowerment and encouragement as the way forward to achieve success. Such companies are utilizing positive approaches such as management system based on team building, collaboration, reinforcement, and positive encouragement to employees. The result of such approached can be reflected by the substantial growth of Starbuck in terms of customer satisfaction and brand recognition around the world. Similarly, the meta-analysis indicates the significant relationship between positive organization behaviors and the employee performance. For this reason, different organizations need to employ different leadership strategies that enhance employee satisfaction and hence improved performance. Optimism, hope, and resilience and self-efficacy can be enhanced through strategies such as team building, collaboration, reinforcement, and positive encouragement to employees.
A case study illustrates how Deming visited the top three U.S automakers with an objective of changing the manner at which business was conducted by the firms. Deming suggested the need to eradicate the archaic hierarchical system of management and shift attention to a system that focused on team building, reinforcement of the workforce, and positive encouragement (Timothy, 2009). At first, the C.E.O of the American automakers assumed that Deming’s theory of strategy and performance lacked the capacity to influence the motivation of employees for improved productivity. Conversely, the competitors from Japan applied Deming’s theory of “collaborative management” that helped them to produce vehicles with high-quality standards than those produced by American Counterparts. The management team in Japan Company positively reinforced their employees, and this instilled a sense of motivation that helped them to come up with high-quality vehicles. A manager who applies the Deming theory helps their employees to attain high levels of hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience. As a result, the perceptions of employees changes and they start perceiving the goals and objectives of the firm in a positive manner. This improves the strategic performance and behavior in organizations.
The positive behavior approach is applied by organizations with an aim to develop and maintain optimism in the workplace, most likely in adverse times. For instance, the American Financial Advisors applied optimism so that they could develop its associates. Optimism training by organizations follows strict guidelines that improve the outcomes in the workplace. The positive behavior approach is a supportive strategy that benefits employees in organizations, and as a result, performance is improved. In the future, the scholars need to research on the significance of integrating the positive organizational behavior to both the managers and the employees.
Carr, J. E., & Sidener, T. M. (2002). On the relation between applied behavior analysis and positive behavioral support. The Behavior Analyst, 25(2), 245
Cuccureddu, G. (2012, October 22). Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz: "Employees Are The True Ambassadors of Our Brand" | Damarque. Retrieved from http://www.damarque.com/blog/gianluigi-cuccureddu/starbucks-ceo-howard-schultz-employees-are-true-ambassadors-our-brand
Johnston, J. M., Foxx, R. M., Jacobson, J. W., Green, G., & Mulick, J. A. (2006). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 29(1), 51.
Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-72.
Timothy, T. C. (2009, March 19). Positive Psychology News Daily » Positive Organizational Behaviour and Better Work Performance. Retrieved from http://posisssstivepsychologynews.com/news/timothy-so/200903181667
Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behavior in the workplace the impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management, 33(5), 774-800.