Sample Essay on Methodology of The Oppressed
Fredrick Jameson-Postmodernism is a Neo-Colonizing Global Force
Fredrick Jameson gives his theory on postmodernism positing that postmodernism is the agent of capitalism in the world. The author presents that postmodernism is the new world order that presents capitalism to the people.
Postmodernism is, therefore, the ultimate situation for the modern man, and whoever that not abide by postmodernism is left behind. Postmodernism, according to the author, has broken the sense of history that people have on civilization. Postmodernism, therefore, has broken the tradition sense of viewing history and brought about a dominant western way of looking at issues.
Postmodernism, therefore, is a form of global neocolonialism.
The author further affirms that postmodernism is not a fantasy, and its existence is real and supported by common occurrences. The author uses Picasso and Van Gogh, whose pieces distance themselves from modern culture and the moral concepts of the contemporary world.
The artists have a unique aesthetic expression that reflects the postmodernism era. Art, therefore, is a function of social change, as depicted through the works of the two artists. The author also mentions parody as an art form that refers to the ways of the people and, most of the time, will comment on the dominant culture in a bid to ridicule it or transform it.
Also, the author emphasizes that postmodernism is real, and its effects are affecting the people every day. The adoption of the modern way of life is solely influenced by western notions such that modernity is synonymous with the west. Form the perception, the concept of neocolonialism is clear.
The author elucidates that “first world culture has undergone a shift, a transformation of immense proportions to be imagined “in terms of an explosion, a prodigious expansion of culture throughout the social realm” (Sandoval 16). The western explosion of culture, therefore, signifies neocolonialism through postmodernism.
U.S. Third World Feminism-Differential Social Movement I
The U.S. Third World Feminism is a social revolution that has redefined American identity. The perception of the feminist movement has led to the adoption of differential consciousness. The author points out the difference in the theoretical perspective on feminism.
According to Sandoval (38), “I characterize these as the “equal rights,” “revolutionary,” “supremacist,” “separatist,” and “differential” forms of oppositional consciousness.” Equal rights, for instance, is an ideology that advocates for the recognition of the rights and privileges of women in American society — women's empowerment and emancipation results in the change of public consciousness.
The article further provides evidence-based information concerning differential social movement. Social movement shapes public consciousness on diverse issues such as feminism. In American popular culture, the perception of feminism rights among women of color is different from the way it gets perceived among the dominant white women. Differential, social movement affects the way the masses see the dominant ideologies, especially that relates to the rights of women.
As Sandoval argues, "1980s hegemonic feminist scholars produced the histories of feminist consciousness that they believed typified the modes of exchange operating within the oppositional spaces of the women's movement" ( 46).
The author’s concept of collective action towards achieving the rights of women in diverse cultures is interesting since it seeks to shed light on the plight of women both from the majority and minority cultures. According to the author, women of color should adopt a multi-faceted approach in ensuring that they coordinate activities aimed at the collective efforts in fighting for their rights to achieve international feminism.
The article is significant to Chicano/Latino studies since it succeeds in presenting critical arguments that depict the role of social movements in facilitating women empowerment and the observation of the rights of women of color in the United States.
The Rhetoric of Supremacism, as Revealed by Ethical Technology:
The article provides an in-depth analysis of the prevalence of language of supremacy in contemporary American society. There have been growing concerns over the occurrence of traditional rejection and prejudice. People are becoming intolerant towards diversity.
In a multi-cultural society such as the United States, there are the white majority and other numerous minority cultures. For instance, African Americans and Asian Americans are perceived to be minority ethnic groups.
According to Sandoval (118), “Most striking about Barthes’s figures is that they call up a consciousness capable of supremacy, regardless of the basis on which such supremacy arises, whether it be race, gender, culture, class, sex, nation, or a combination of these.” There is a high prevalence rate of discrimination and stigmatization based on racial differences.
The author presents a fascinating account of how the rhetoric of supremacy has brought a tremendous impact on the relationship between the dominant and minority cultures. Through giving an evidence-based argument on the issue of sovereignty and how it relates to the methodology of the oppressed, the article seeks to highlight the plight of power struggles and supremacy in Western society.
The rhetoric of supremacy is an essential dimension of the methodology of the oppressed since it eventually results in the undermining of the fundamental rights of the minority in society. As Sandoval posits, “In this realm, previous categories of “race,” the rhetoric of “supremacy,” and its necessary colonization of gender, sex, race, class, or any social identity” (129).
For instance, the traditional rejection of the people who are perceived to be from minority cultures creates a rift between the two cultures. The language of supremacy, moreover, consists of terminologies that seek to belittle a particular subculture in society. The article can, therefore, be used to promote Chicano/Latino studies. The term negro has been used to refer to African Americans for centuries.
However, the term symbolizes inferiority as it shows the dominance of the white culture. Therefore, the language of supremacy also plays a significant role in promoting the rhetoric of supremacy since it enhances the power of the dominant group in society.
I have learned valuable lessons from the reading. However, I feel that there are some areas that we should discuss further in class since they are significant to the Chicano/Latino studies. The critical areas include Semiotics and deconstruction, as well as Love in the Postmodern World.