Good Example Of Effects Of Globalization Essay
Globalization and modernization refer to the influence that modern nations have on non-developed or traditional nations and societies. At times, these influences result from direct contact, such as the opening of a Western corporate office or manufacturing plant in an underdeveloped nation. Other times, the influences can be indirect, such as the transmission of Western cultural values to non-Western societies through mediums such as television, literature, and goods shipped to local areas. Globalization and modernization can have both positive and negative impacts on the cultural practices of non-Western societies, and deciphering the impact of these influences can involve a complex analysis. The Maasai community in Kenya and the aborigine people in Mexico have been impacted by globalization, and thus, many changes have occurred in the communities.
Globalization has virtually affected most people in the world either from the developed world or from developing world. The changes have occurred in the way they communicate, their culture, political regime and trade (Mander & Tauli-Corpuz, 2006). The Yanomami community are indigenous group that lives in the Amazon rainforest. The community is well known to be very violent to all people including one another. They are believed to be living at the borders of Brazil and Venezuela. The community has formulated villages that contain a family that has people ranging from nuclear family to extended family members. They live under the Shabono, which is stated to be a common roof (Peters, 1998). The shabono are usually made from the vines, tree trunks and leaves.
The community practices hunting, fishing, agriculture and gathers fruits in the forest. The people in the village have different roles assigned to them. The women are the ones who look after the homes, children and their husbands. Polygamy is also practiced in the village. The man is allowed to have more than one wife. The men are responsible in looking after the animals and hunting. The men also clear the areas where plantations will take place while the women of the community cultivate the plantains. When the community get good harvest they celebrate, in which they can invite their neighbouring community. In these celebrations, the people decorate themselves with flowers and feathers (Peters, 1998).
The women do most of the singing and dancing in the celebrations. The Shamans usually attend to the people who are sick in the community. When the kinsmen of the community passes on the people cremate the bones of the body that has already been consumed by insects when left in the forest far from Shabono (Peters, 1998). The body is usually wrapped in leaves and taken to the forest where the tissues will be eaten by insects. The bones left will be cremated and consumed by the people when the ashes are added in the meals. When the Yanomami women have reached puberty and the menstruations have begun this means that they are starting to be women. This means that they are ready for marriage.
The community began to be changed in the 20th century. This is when miners began to be interested in the Yanomami land. It is believed that the land contains gold. This has caused many mining companies to invade the land. They brought on malaria, contaminated the waters, destroyed the lands, cut down trees and invaded the homes of the community torturing and killing the people. Napoleon Chagnon is among the first anthropologist to have influenced some of the changes that occurred in the community (Wallace, 2002). He was working with James Neel who was studying the community as well. They introduced the community with the modern medicine, which would cure the diseases that were killing them. While studying them, they took some of their blood in order to have a better look at them in their labs back in their countries. The taking of the blood sample has caused controversy in which the people want their blood to be taken back to their country in order for them to bury it with the dead. Some of the people in the villages began to work in the mining companies while other women got married to some of the people working in the mining companies. This caused some of the people to leave their lands and went on to the other countries where they were able to be educated and lied in the modern houses (Peters, 1998).
The Maasai community are known for their cultural practices in Kenya and the world. This is the reason why they have attracted many tourists in Kenya and Tanzania. The Maasai community are nomadic pastoralist. This practice has made them move from one location to another, conquering any community that is in their way, and taking their livestock. The women in the community are the ones who build their houses, which are called the manyattas. The houses are usually made of cow dung. The Maasai community is made up of age set and age groups. The elders are the leaders of the community, and thus, try to maintain the laws. The men in the community are the ones who are responsible in looking after the livestock and protecting the community from external threats. The work of the women in the society is to look after the home and the children thereby they are supposed to cook and care for the children. During the ceremonies, the Maasai people have their unique ways in which they dance. The men form a circle separate from the women. The men are known to jump when they sand in the middle (Spencer, 1988).
Globalisation in Kenya changed after the colonisation of the country. This changed the way in which the Maasai people lived. The Maasai people had to stop their nomadic pastoral life. This is because the people were confined into living in one area. The laws were made in that it made it impossible for the Maasai people to continue stealing other community’s livestock’s (Spencer, 1988). The people began to change how they dressed and the houses were built in the modern ways using bricks. The people have also begun to incorporate the dance moves they see on the television. The music has also changed and the people have started using the instruments that have been introduced in the community through globalisation.
Analyzing the Maasai community
The globalization has changed the Maasai culture. This globalization can be said to have been brought on by the colonisation of Kenya. The colonization caused the division of the land thus, bringing about boundaries of the area. This boundary has made it hard for the Maasai people to practice their nomadic pastoralism. The British colonialist wanted to change Kenya in order for it to become more like how the British people were living. This therefore, caused them to bring about their ways of living and making it look like it is the best way of living. The change of culture in the country was done using a direct approach by the British colonizers. The direct approach comes in when they forced the people to change their ways of living.
The changes that have occurred in the Maasai culture are both intentional and unintentional. The reason for stating this is because of the colonization, which brought about changes in Kenya. It is also unintentional because of the rise of media. The people are exposed to the western culture through watching television. The lives of the people in the western world fascinate them. This will therefore, cause them to try to imitate them.
There are many negative effects that have occurred due to globalization. One of the most notable negative effects is that the Maasai people have began to forget their identity. The reason for this is because of the introduction of technology in the world (Kareithi, 2003). Technology has caused people to be influenced by the western culture. This can be seen from the movies and other programs that people see on the television, internet or they hear from the radio. The people have started building houses, wearing dresses and trousers. The role of the women and men began to change in the community. The women were known to be homemakers who cared for the children and the house. The roles have started changing that the women have started working on the factories; others have become doctors or businesswomen. The men have also stopped being warriors and now are plaiting the women in the society. The men and the women have started making baskets that are usually sold to the tourist who visit Kenya.
The positive impacts is that globalization has caused people to stop being illiterate through education. The modern houses are more firm and provide more security to the people if compared to the Manyattas. The women have started seeing their rights and have realized that they can do more than just being homemakers. This has caused them to work in various fields in the society. The economy of the Maasai people has improved. The reason for this is because of the increase of tourist in the region especially because of the Maasai Mara Park. The people were able to get jobs in the game reserves and began opening their businesses near the game reserves. The people are encouraged to continue practising their culture and realised that it was profitable to do so because it increases tourists (Spencer, 1988).
In conclusion, the native non-western societies have not responded well to globalization. For the elders they believe that their culture has been distorted by the rise of the western culture in their societies. This has caused some of the people not to have the modern technologies in their houses and others have refused to build the modern houses and continue to live in their traditional houses. In looking at the indigenous people called Guarani and the Maasai community in Kenya it is evident that globalization has changed and is continuing to change in the present world.
Kareithi, S. (2003). Coping with Declining Tourism. Examples from. Luton: University of Luton Press.
Mander, J. & Tauli-Corpuz, V. (2006). Paradigm Wars: Indigenous Peoples' Resistance to . Sierra Club Books.
Peters, J. F. (1998). Life Among the Yanomami: The Story of Change Among the Xilixana on the Mucajai River in Brazil. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Spencer, P. (1988). The Maasai of Matapato. A Study of Rituals of Rebellion. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Wallace, S. (2002). Napoleon in Exile. National Geographic Adventure.