Example OF Essay On Materials And Methods
Article Review: Discussing Opioid Abuse and Dependence during Pregnancy
Opioids are one the most common pain-killers prescribed to patients. When used short-term and as directed it is quite effective. However, many people over-use, misuse and abuse these drugs. Opioid abuse is a very serious issue in the United States at this time. Drug addiction is a serious health problem for any individual, but it becomes more serious when there are innocent victims involved. There are many pregnant women who are abusing Opioids while they are pregnant. The prevalence of this trend is continuing to rise. The authors of the article, “Opioid Abuse and Dependence during Pregnancy: Temporal Trends and Obstetrical Outcomes,” conducted 13 year study, to determine the health risks, statistics, and overall negative outcomes for the drug users, but, also, upon their unborn offspring. Now, this would include women who are dependent on their own prescribed medication and others that use the medication, strictly for recreations use. Regardless, the results of the researcher’s hard work have determined that there is a direct link and calculable impact of opioid use on pregnancy.
The study was conducted by compiling data from 57 million American women who had participated in hospital delivery between the years of 1998 to 2011. The information was gathered as part of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. According to the authors temporal trends were compared and contrasted and logistic regression was applied to determine the variations between maternal usages of opioids drugs. They collected the data from a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and varied economic demographics have been considered; the wealthy, as well as, poor. They also were able to include women from all geographic locations in the United States. The research was conclusive and supported the perspective that opioids abuse during pregnancy is detrimental (Maeda, Bateman & et. al. 2014).
The results of the study were succinct. Of the 57 million participants, more than 100,000 expectant mothers were found to be categorized as dependent or an abuser of opioid drugs, which accounts for 2% of the women studied. Women between the ages of 20-34 were the most likely to fall under the category, more than older women. What is immediately apparent is that the statistics have doubled over the last decade. When comparing the pregnancy and births of women who are and are not abusers or dependents upon opioids it is clear that there are a number of negative prenatal and delivery outcomes that are more common with that use, as opposed women who do not take or abuse opioids during their pregnancy. It was found that opioids abusers are more likely to experience premature birth, placental abruption, intrauterine growth restriction, and, sometimes, stillbirth. There are. also, a higher statistics regarding the risks to the mother’s themselves. With opioid abuse the mother has a greater chance of not surviving labor (Maeda, Bateman & et. al. 2014).
This study has identified the negative outcomes that opioids use during pregnancy can have on the children, as well as, the mothers. There is really no argument that abusing these drugs, or any others, can have a life-long impact on the child, mother, and family as a whole. The authors acknowledge that taking the steps to seek treatments and alternative drug therapies can have serious side effects. There is a need, according to the authors, for less threatening alternatives and a means to address this problem is essential. 57 million women and infants are being placed in danger of health problems or death, according to statistics. That is a serious number and further research is needed to determine new and innovative measures that can be taken to positively impact the data in the years to come (Maeda, Bateman & et. al. 2014).
Opioid abusers have a specific relationship with these drugs, it is not as simple as ceasing the consumption entirely; for addicts alternative drug therapies are needed that can eliminate the risks of opioids use and maintain the mother’s health and provide a better outcome for their offspring. The authors acknowledge that while their data confirms the dangerous link between opioid use and pregnancy outcomes, the study does have a few weaknesses that would require further investigation. Because the data was collected from multiple locations, based on their admission and related outcomes during delivery, there could be inaccuracies in the data. For example, it can be difficult to determine between some mothers who are recreational users or addicts, those that take the medication for a legitimate reason, and those that are already seeking treatment and alternative therapies. There are also considerations to be made regarding accessory, contributory factors that cannot be conclusively ascertained. For example, there are obvious side effects identified with opioids abuse, but what affect does the mother’s diet or other unhealthy habits have on the pregnancy. It would be difficult to determine if the greatest side effects can be attributed to opioids alone, or a varied combination of other unhealthy risk factors, like smoking and alcohol consumption (Maeda, Bateman & et. al. 2014).
Opioid abuse during pregnancy is influencing the raising statistics of infant complications or infant death, as well as, greater risks to the mother’s health and survival. Finding medicinal or therapeutic means to treat drug abuse effectively and safely in pregnant women is essential. If this does not happen, then the prevalence is only going to continue to increase. It could easy double or quadruple over the next decade, if no interventions are taken. Regardless of whether the mothers are legitimate, prescribed users, illegal abusers, or addicts already seeking treatment, it is the child that is an innocent victim in these issues. That said, the authors argue that finding new and alternative means to treat drug abuse in expecting mothers is the only way to augment the prevalence and make a genuine positive impact on the statistics outlined in this study.
Maeda, A., Bateman, B., & Et. al. (2014). Opioid Abuse and Dependence during Pregnancy
Temporal Trends and Obstetrical Outcomes. American Society of Anesthesiologists: Perioperative Medicine, 121(6), 1158-65.