Free Essay On Medicine: Ph6 Endocrine And Musculoskeletal System

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Diabetes, Sugar, Blood, Drugs, Glucose, Nursing, Health, Treatment

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/09/18


Diabetes is a health condition the usually results from the body’s failure or inability to maintain proper levels of glucose in the blood. The condition can manifest itself through three main ways; diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes. Juvenile diabetes is usually categorized as a type of diabetes that affects children and young people. This essay discusses the types of diabetes, the long-term and short-term effects of type 2 diabetes as well as the treatment of the condition.

Differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas produces very little or no insulin at all. In most cases, the patients of type 1 diabetes are below 20 years of age since the disease manifests itself at a young age. In most cases, the disease is genetic and people who have the condition tend to take insulin shots for the rest of their lives.
Diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes is the one that is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels or hyperglycemia (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2005). The disease occurs because of either cellular resistance to insulin action or insulin deficiency.
The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes is common in pregnant women especially when they are in their second trimester. About 4% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes, which manifests itself through the presence of high glucose levels in the blood (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2005). The difference between type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes is that the latter disappears soon after the baby is born.
Juvenile diabetes manifests itself like type 1 diabetes (production of low or no insulin at all). The condition affects approximately 90% of all young people below the age of 25 years who have diabetes.
Type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes, proper preparation, and administration of this drug and dietary considerations related to treatment.
One of the commonest drugs used in the treatment of diabetes type 2 is metformin. The drug can be used on people whose blood glucose is uncontrolled through nutrition and exercise. The drug can be used in combination with another drug (a sulfonylurea) when the blood glucose control is inadequate. The user should gradually alter the use of metformin when there is the risk of gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects. One can consider using extended-absorption metformin tablets if s/he has GI issues. In addition, type 2 diabetic patients should have their serum creeatine levels checked. In case, the serum levels exceed 150 micromol/litre, one should stop using metformin. In addition those with kidney, liver and cardiovascular issues should discuss such issues with a diabetics specialist in order to make informed decisions regarding the use metformin.
The dietary considerations to treatment include the avoidance of excess intake of sucrose-containing foods. The patients should implement a meal-planning system that allows them to limit their carbohydrate intake. The patients should also take in plenty of fruits and vegetables in order to boost immunity and increase healing abilities. In addition, the patients should avoid alcohol and abuse of drugs such as tobacco. People using insulin or any insulin secretgogue should take considerable sugars in order to avoid the risk hypoglycaemia or extreme reduction of the levels of glucose in the blood.

Short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.

The short-term effects of diabetes type 2 usually manifest themselves because of failing to control the level of sugar in the blood. The short-term effects of type 2 diabetes include the hypoglycemia or the extreme reduction in blood glucose or hyperglycemia when the blood sugar goes too high. The signs of low blood sugar include rapid heartbeat, confusion, headache, anxiety, numbness, sweating, sleepiness, and slurred speech among others.
Hyperglycemia manifests itself through frequent urination. When blood glucose is either too high or too low, patients must not necessarily use drugs but they can resort to controlling of the sugar level. Patients experiencing effects of hypoglycemia can take a glucose tablet or drink orange juice. Patients experiencing hyperglycemia can drink lots of water in order to increase the frequency of urination and with it lower the glucose content in the body. Maintenance of a healthy lifestyle can lead one to avoid the long-term effects of type 2 diabetes.
The long-term effects of type 2 diabetes include raised blood pressure and the development of thrombosis. In addition, the disease has brings about cardiovascular issues such as coronary artery disease, heart attacks, stroke, and angina. Other long-term effects include eye damage (blindness), nerve damage that could result in erectile dysfunction. In extreme cases, diabetes can lead to the amputation of limbs and kidney damage to the point of compelling patients to seek dialysis or transplantation.
The management of diabetes calls for the incorporation of multiple areas of health care management. The use of drugs such as metformin when type 2 diabetes is detected early helps in the stabilization of blood glucose thereby preventing deterioration of diabetes into the complicated long-term effects. Patients who are already experiencing the long-term effects such as kidney or heart issues should obtain treatment for those conditions alongside the treatment for diabetes. The use of drugs in the treatment of diabetes type 2 especially after the onset of the short-term effects should be subject to the weight of the patient, physical activity and preexisting health conditions.


Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (2005). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach. Philadelphia, PA [u.a.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2009). Type 2 diabetes: The management of type 2 diabetes. Retrieved 11 January 2014 from

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