Lesson 9 Readers Log And A Reading Image/Text Combinations Essays Example
Detailed facts form the basis of inductive reasoning through arriving at a conclusion based on principle facts that will guide one toward an end. It is also called inductive logic. Inductive reasoning is used to determine one`s ability to work flexibly in unfamiliar conditions in order to solve a problem. In simple words, the reasoning begins with a particular argument and arrives at a general logical conclusion and in most time is termed as strong and weak. Though criticized by many, the use of its examples in inductive literature and daily problem-solving speak loudly for it. Below is an example of what an inductive argument would appear like (Peter & Carol 43).
The images above looks at the logic behind the fact that a penguin is black and white but so are some old television shows and in conclusion of that one single view that some penguins are old television shows. The concept would seem to be logical after all the data given is correct. In the image, the Penguin is depicted to be thinking of the similarity between its color and that of the old television shows. According to the argument, logic would agree with this thinking since they both are black and white which can provide a comprehensive conclusion of these two items being the same.
Below are some examples of inductive reasoning
Rick and Peter are friends. Rick likes to dance, cook and write. Peter likes to dance and cook. Therefore it can be assumed that he also likes to write.
Annie leaves for school at 6:30 a.m. and is on time. So Annie assumes, then, that she will always be on time provided she leaves at 6:30 a.m.
Sam is a teacher. All teachers are nice. Therefore, it can be assumed that Sam is nice.
All cats that were observed purred. Therefore, all cats purr.
All that have taught by Mrs. Richards are right handed. So, Mrs. Richards assumes all students are right handed.
All basketball players observed are tall, so all basketball players must be tall.
Zack is a doctor. Doctors are smart. Zack is assumed to be smart.
Capturing this motion would be the question on the conclusion from this caption; one can say some penguins are old television shows based only on the concept that both are black and white. The consideration is on one fact that they share the same colors. Let`s take a look at all the other animals that are black and white in color and whether they will help us come to the same conclusion as is in the image.
Zebras, crows, killer whales, cows and some dogs are also black and white in color. Will all these animals be claimed to be old television shows? The argument here has to be taken far beyond the scope of color and perhaps look into the reason and logic behind the of old television shows. Leaving it on the issue of color then all these animals and many more, that share colors would qualify to be called old television, shows but as we know that is not the case. So let`s look at why this conclusion has a fault (Peter & Carol 44).
When taken back to technology one knows that the television shows aired in the old times appeared black and white. The color of images in television does not show the real image of the object but the equipment available at the time for broadcasting and recording purposes. The technology at the time was using Cathode Ray Tube (CRTs) for image production and this was before they had been improved upon they only had electro guns/gun that produced only two colors. Black and white image captured was interpreted into these two colors essentially creating pictures that appeared Black and White on the screen and even though the original was not in those colors.
The logic given in the picture above will bring to question a lot of issues, for example if we are to take the fact that some fruits are named after their color like the orange. According to the logic above, one would say that fruits get their names from the color this would then call for us to take into account all fruits named after their color. The issue of the Penguin being a TV show is only based on the color. One can completely rule out this logic based on the fact that it only looks at the TV show. If it looked at penguins featuring in the old television shows because of their color then that would be another thing altogether. Take, for instance, an argument states "all tigers seen in a certain region have Black yellow stripes. All tigers in this region have yellow stripes" Although the Tigers observed had black, yellow stripes, the existence of tigers with white and black stripes cannot be inferred from. Taking this into consideration, one can assume that the conclusion arrived at in this example is uncertain. However, the chances of coming across a white tiger are rare we can accept this argument and thus we can say it qualifies as an example of a strong induction (Peter & Carol 45).
The argument of the penguin is not one that one can say a strong induction because our argument is not with observed data, but an assumption based on color. If anything, it is rare to find Black and White TV shows, but penguins are still around and will probably be for more years to come.
In conclusion, although the use of inductive reasoning has demonstrated tremendous success its application is still questionable putting this into consideration. Scottish philosopher David Hume spoke of the fact that our minds draw uncertain conclusion from some limited experiences looking at the fact that in induction the dependence on the premise is almost always unknown. For example, assuming all ravens are black, the fact that there are many black ravens supports the assumption. However, the assumption gets inconsistent because there are some ravens that are white in color. Therefore, the generalizing rule of "all ravens are black" is not consistent with the existence of white ravens (Peter & Carol 49). In our case of the penguin, one can safely say the relationship between old television shows and penguins in this caption is not logical. If the penguin were not there, the shows would still have been there and vice versa. It only means that that the two are mutually exclusive (independent of each other), and we would be safe in saying that the fact that the two have the same colors is merely a coincidence. A television show has no relationship with the color of the characters shown on the TV set. The job of the equipment is being used to develop and transmit the images to viewers all over the globe. The paper has stated the assumption in the image that is misleading that if one went by it we would end up renaming a lot of items that are in existence today. Taking a look at the various examples given in the paper; the crow, zebra, and killer whale should all these be also called Old TV shows because of their color? It is not true; hence the conclusion here will be that the logic in our image is faulty and needs to be revisited because the sample or scope used to come up to that conclusion is not correct.
Peter Facione, Carol Gittens. Think Critically, Course Smart e-text. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson, 2013